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TOXMAP Glossary of Terms
Other toxicology-related glossaries:
Glossary for Chemists of Terms Used in Toxicology (National Library of Medicine®)
Glossary of Terms (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry)
Terms and Acronyms (Environmental Protection Agency)
The capacity of a biologically active agent to cause serious harm, injury, or death to a living system following a single dose or a single brief exposure.top
The grouping together of a selected set of like entities (usually adjacent) to form one entity.
The ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry) is a federal public health agency of the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). The ATSDR provides health information related to prevention of harmful exposures and diseases related to toxic substances.top
A map depicting background reference information such as landforms, roads, landmarks, and political boundaries, onto which other thematic information is placed.top
CAS (Chemical Abstract Service)
Chemical Abstract Service (http://www.cas.org/), a division of the American Chemical Society; an abstracting and indexing service for chemical scientific literature. This service assigns unique Registry Numbers (RN) to chemical substances, which are often known by more than one name.top
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (http://www.epa.gov/superfund/action/law/cercla.htm), commonly known as Superfund (http://www.epa.gov/superfund/action/law/cercla.htm), was enacted by Congress on December 11, 1980. This law created a tax on the chemical and petroleum industries and provided broad Federal authority to respond directly to releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances that may endanger public health or the environment. CERCLA was amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) on October 17, 1986.top
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) is an EPA database containing information on hazardous waste sites, potentially hazardous waste sites, and associated remedial activities across the nation.top
The capacity of a biologically active agent to produce toxic effects following long-continued or numerous brief exposures, or to produce effects which persist whether they occur immediately upon exposure or are delayed.top
A substance that is either present in an environment where it does not belong or is present at levels that might cause harmful (adverse) health effects; any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter that has an adverse effect on air, water, or soil.top
A set of numbers that locates the position of a point on a map, usually represented by (x,y) values.top
Factual information pertaining to the study of the characteristics of human populations, such as size, growth, density, distribution, and vital statistics. TOXMAP allows users to overlay demographic data (e.g., US census, cancer mortality, income) over environmental data.top
The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) is the United States government's principal agency for protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services, especially for those who are least able to help themselves. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the DHHS. The National Library of Medicine® (NLM) is an Institute of the NIH.top
The total amount of a chemical administered to, or taken by, an organism.top
The surroundings, including water, air, soil, and their inter-relationships as well as relationships between them and any living organism.top
The result/outcome of the chemical or biological pollutant after it has been released into the natural environment. The fate depends upon the specific characteristics of the chemical and the physical and biological forces which may act upon that chemical, such as heat, water or soil microorganisms.top
The EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) is the federal agency designed to protect human health and the environment. The EPA produces the TRI (Toxics Release Inventory) database, which contains information on toxic chemical releases.top
EPA's TRI Form A provides certain facilities the option of submitting a substantially shorter reporting form. Not all facilities are eligible to submit Form A reports; this has varied over the years. Eligibility has been based on the annual reportable amount of the chemical, such as the sum of production-related releases and other waste management and the amount manufactured, processed, or otherwise used.
FRS (Facility Registry System)
The Facility Registry System (FRS) (http://www.epa.gov/frs/) is a centrally managed database from the EPA that identifies facilities, sites or places subject to environmental regulations or of environmental interest. TOXMAP plots the location of most TRI facilities using addresses and coordinates from the FRS.top
In TOXMAP, a geographic region is a named collection of US states and/or counties whose boundaries are highlighted in red on a map. When a region is chosen, all TOXMAP maps show TRI and Superfund results only inside the specified region. In maps that show on-site chemical releases, the color of the circle represents the amount of release relative only to other releases in that geographic region. Other map data (such as roads, political boundaries, and demographic data) are visually muted on the map.top
GIS (Geographic Information System) is a means of storing, displaying, and analyzing data that can be referenced geographically.
HRS (Hazard Ranking System)
The Hazard Ranking System (HRS) (http://www.epa.gov/superfund/programs/npl_hrs/hrsint.htm) is a numerically based screening system that uses information to assess the relative potential of sites to pose a threat to human health or the environment. The HRS is used by the EPA (http://www.epa.gov/) to place uncontrolled waste sites on the National Priorities List (NPL) (http://www.epa.gov/superfund/sites/npl/).top
HSDB (Hazardous Substances Data Bank) (http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?HSDB) is a database from the National Library of Medicine (NLM) with comprehensive, peer-reviewed toxicology data for about 5,000 chemicals. It contains a broad scope in human and animal toxicity, safety and handling, and environmental fate.
The angular distance in degrees north or south from the equator of a point on the Earth's surface.top
Visual representation of a geographic dataset in any digital map environment. Roads, national parks, political boundaries and rivers are examples of layers.top
The angular distance in degrees east or west from the Prime Meridian (Greenwich, England) of a point on the Earth's surface.top
Males to 100 Females
A method used by demographers to measure the relative number of males and females in a population. The male-to-female sex ratio is calculated by dividing the number of males (of all ages) by the number of females (of all ages) and multiplying by 100. A value above 100 means there are more males than females in the population. A value below 100 indicates more females than males.top
A map projection is a way to represent the curved surface of the Earth on the flat surface of a map. TOXMAP uses a map projection (called "North American Albers Equal Area Conic") which makes the continental United States look most accurate and realistic. Areas farther away from the US will appear increasingly distorted.
The median divides the age distribution into two equal parts: one-half of the cases falling below the median age and one-half above the median.top
Metadata is data that describes other data.
NPL (National Priorities List)
The National Priorities List (NPL) contains the most serious uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous waste sites throughout the United States and its territories.
In TRI, a toxic chemical release that is located on the generating site (such as via a smokestack). This is in contrast to off-site releases (e.g., transfer to a location other than the generating site) that are reported to the TRI program but not included in TOXMAP. To view off-site release data, see TOXNET/TRI.top
TOXMAP provides a variety of pre-defined geographic regions. These regions include the ten EPA Regions, the 21 Hydrologic Regions defined by the US Geological Survey (USGS), and several general regions defined by or adapted from other authoritative sources. When a region is chosen, all TOXMAP maps show TRI and Superfund results only inside the specified region.top
PubMed® (Toxicology Subset)
PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez), NLM's bibliographic database for biomedical literature, contains subsets in specific areas. This subset strategy was created by NLM's Specialized Information Services to facilitate searching for subjects in the area of toxicology. TOXMAP's "Chemical & Map Area" feature searches within this PubMed subset.top
Data drawn on a map that helps to identify the position of physical features in relation to other information. For example, cities, roads, and state boundaries.top
Means by which a substance is released into, or enters, the environment (e.g. air, land, water, underground injection). TOXMAP shows only on-site releases.top
In toxicology, the effect-- if any-- that a chemical has on a living organism. The response is related to the chemical dose and to the resulting concentration of the chemical in the organism.top
The probability that a hazard or effect will occur at a specific level of exposure to a substance.top
How scientists determine the likelihood that a harmful effect will happen at a specific level of exposure to a substance.top
The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) (http://www.epa.gov/superfund/action/law/sara.htm) amended the CERCLA, also know as Superfund, on October 17, 1986. SARA reflected EPA's experience in administering the complex Superfund program during its first six years and made several important changes and additions to the program.top
The Specialized Information Services (SIS) Division (http://sis.nlm.nih.gov/) of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) (http://www.nlm.nih.gov) creates information resources and services in toxicology, environmental health, chemistry, HIV/AIDS, and specialized topics in minority health. SIS produces databases such as TOXMAP, TOXNET, and HSDB (Hazardous Substances Data Bank).top
Superfund is the Federal government's program to clean up the nation's uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. It is operated under the legislative authority of CERCLA and SARA that funds and carries out EPA solid waste emergency and long-term removal and remedial activities.top
The Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program (TEHIP) (http://sis.nlm.nih.gov/enviro.html) of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) creates, organizes, and disseminates toxicology and environmental health information.
Graphic representation of the surface features of a place or region on a map, indicating their relative positions and elevations.top
The relative location of geographic phenomena independent of their exact position. In digital data, topological relationships such as connectivity, adjacency and relative position are usually expressed as relationships between nodes, links and polygons. Topology is useful in GIS because many spatial modeling operations require topological information rather than co-ordinates.top
The degree to which a chemical substance (or physical agent) elicits an adverse effect on the biological system of an organism exposed to the substance over a designated time period. Acute toxicity stems from a single dose or single exposure, while chronic toxicity results from long-continued or numerous brief exposures.top
The study of the adverse effects of chemical or physical agents on living organisms and biological systems.top
TOXLINE (http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?TOXLINE) is the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) bibliographic database for toxicology. It provides access to extensive references to the literature on biochemical, pharmacological, physiological, and toxicological effects of drugs and other chemicals.
TOXLINE references are drawn from a variety of sources.
TOXMAP is a web site from the National Library of Medicine (NLM) that uses maps of the United States to show location of Superfund sites and the amount and location of the on-site release of certain toxic chemicals into the environment.
TOXNET (TOXicology Data NETwork) (http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/) is a group of databases covering toxicology, hazardous chemicals, environmental health and related areas.
The TRI (Toxics Release Inventory) is a publicly available EPA database that contains information on toxic chemical releases and other waste management activities reported annually by certain covered industry groups as well as federal facilities.
In TOXMAP, a user-defined region is created by the user choosing any combination of US states and/or state counties. The resulting region can be named and given associated descriptive text. When a region is chosen, all TOXMAP maps show TRI and Superfund results only inside the specified region.top